All commands assume that you've setup a partition already, that isn't formatted, with the name ada0p1 (change if necessary).
And for anything but
attach we're assuming it's attached...
What is GELI?
GELI is the standard disk-encryption for FreeBSD (and ArchBSD).
GELI can use pretty much anything for encryption, as long as libcrypto can encrypt/decrypt it. This includes passphrases, key-files, parts of files, etc. It also has support for multiple keys (a user key and a company key, for example) and can also use one-time keys for e.g. swap-partitions. And, because GELI uses libcrypto as it's backend, it has crypto hardware support where available.
Same as with ZFS, multiple reasons.
1) Improved privacy (if done correctly)
2) Company rules (Loads of companies that require disk-encryption)
4) Because you can...
5) Warez & Pr0n ;)
Setting up GELI
GELI goes in between the GEOM and the FS, hence the correct order is:
Simple encrypted partition with only passphrase
geli init ada0p1
(Enter the passphrase twice, and you're done)
Same as above but with Blowfish-CBC as the encryption (see below for supported algos)
geli init -e Blowfish-CBC ada0p1
Same as first one, but with integrity-checks (this takes up a lot of space, just FYI)
geli init -a HMAC/SHA512 ada0p1
If you're attaching this provider at boot-time, then you might want it to ask for passphrase on boot
geli init -b ada0p1
Using a key-file
geli init -K /path/to/file -s 4096 -l 256 ada0p1
where 4096 is the sectorsize (bigger sector, slower performance) and 256 is the length (number of sectors)
Using a pass-file
geli init -J /path/to/passfile ada0p1
(This one obviously doesn't work with the one below)
And finally using a key-file without a passphrase
geli init -P -K /path/to/file -s 4096 -l 256 ada0p1
Attaching a GELI-provider
Attaching a GELI-GEOM will create a new GEOM-provider named <prov>.eli, so mounting a GELI-encrypted FS on ada0p1 would look like this:
geli attach ada0p1
mount /dev/ada0p1.eli /mnt
Attaching using a key-file
geli attach -k /path/to/keyfile ada0p1
Attaching using a passphrase-file
geli attach -p /path/to/passfile ada0p1
Attach in read-only
geli attach -r ada0p1
Detaching a GELI-GEOM
Detaching can be done in several ways
geli detach ada0p1.eli
Forcefully (I.e. detach even if the provider is mounted/in-use)
geli detach -f ada0p1.eli
Marking it for detach on close (I.e. when it's unmounted/not in-use)
geli detach -l ada0p1.eli
GELI also has support for creating providers with a random one-time key. Useful for encrypting swap partitions of temporary file systems.
Using a specific encryption-algorithm
geli onetime -e Blowfish-CBC ada0p1
Using a specific data integrity-algorithm
geli onetime -a HMAC/SHA512 ada0p1
Detach on close
geli onetime -d ada0p1
Using a specific sectorsize and keylength
geli onetime -s 4096 -l 256 ada0p1
Good example would be to encrypt your swap-partition.
dd if=/dev/random of=/dev/ada0p1 bs=1m geli onetime -d -e 3des ada0p1 swapon /dev/ada0p1.eli
Changing the boot-flag
If you've setup GELI over a 24-disk cluster, and accidentally selected the "enter passphrase on boot"-flag, here's how to make your life easy again :)
geli configure -B ada0p1.eli
And if you forgot to set the passphrase-on-boot flag, there's how to set it
geli configure -b ada0p1.eli
Setting/Changing the keys
Say that your key-files or passphrase/file got compromised and now you want to change it/them without backing up everything and do it all over. Or your setup only uses a key-file and no passphrase, or wise versa, you get the idea...
(This can be done attached or detached. If it's attached you don't have the enter the passphrase...)
This command has all the parameters that init has, and here are the extra...
(These examples assume attached providers, remove '.eli' for detached)
Setup a new key-file with no old key-file and no passphrases
geli setkey -p -P -K /path/to/newkeyfile ada0p1.eli
Change the old key-file (no old or new passphrase)
geli setkey -p -P -k /path/to/oldkeyfile -K /path/to/newkeyfile ada0p1.eli
Setup a second key-file with an old passphrase but no new passphrase
geli setkey -n 1 -P -K /path/to/newkeyfile ada0p1.eli
Change the old pass-file
geli setkey -j /path/to/oldpassfile -J /path/to/newpassfile ada0p1.eli
Deleting a key
So, you've setup a user-key and that user has gone haywire, now you want to remove his key, here how to do that
Remove the second key
geli delkey -n 1 ada0p1.eli
If you're removing the key that attached the provider you'll have to force it (no need to specify the key# when working on the key that attached it)
geli delkey -f ada0p1.eli
Destroy all keys (this is probably stupid if there's a power-outage)
geli delkey -a ada0p1.eli(No need for -f[orce] here)
NSA is knocking on my doorstep!!! (or, How to remove all traces of the data/encryption)
So, NSA is here to pick up your warez-server and now you're gonna try and get away with it ;)For that we have
This command will detach the provider forcefully, destroy the keys and your data will be lost if you don't have a backup!
WARNING: You'll need a BACKUP of the METADATA when using this command our your DATA WILL BE LOST!!!
Note: how to do a backup is listed below...
Kill a specific provider
geli kill ada0p1.eli
Kill _all_ providers
geli kill -a
(In-case the provider was attached with -r[ead-only] then the keys won't be destroyed, the provider will only be detached!)
Now for the best part, backups. Always keep backups of all providers somewhere same (e.g. your mom's basement...)
Backing up metadata for a specific provider
geli backup ada0p1.eli /path/to/backup
Restoring metadata to a specific provider (safe-mode, checks if the size of the geom is the same)
geli restore ada0p1.eli /path/to/backup
Restoring metadata to a specific provider (force)
geli restore -f ada0p1.eli /path/to/backup
This is useful for laptops where you don't want the provider to be attached when it's put in suspend.
Note: Don't do this on the provider that has /sbin in it, as /sbin/geli has to be accessable, otherwise it will deadlock. Same goes for the key-file (is any)
Suspending specific provider
geli suspend ada0p1.eli
Suspending add providers (don't do this if /sbin or key/pass-file is in a GELI-provider)
geli suspend -a
Resuming specific provider
geli resume ada0p1.eli
Resuming provider with key-file (and manual passphrase)
geli resume -k /path/to/keyfile ada0p1.eli
Resuming provider with key-file (no passphrase)
geli resume -p -k /path/to/keyfile ada0p1.eli
Resuming provider with pass-file
geli resume -j /path/to/passfile ada0p1.eli
Resuming provider with key-file and pass-file
geli resume -k /path/to/keyfile -j /path/to/passfile ada0p1.eli
So, you've resized your GEOM and now the provider won't attach... Well, you'll have to resize the provider too.
geli resize ada0p1.eli
If you know the old size you can do this for an extra check...
geli resize -s [oldsize] ada0p1.eli
man geli(Do I even have to tell you?)